How Does Google Analytics 4 Improve Data Privacy? - GDPR Compliance

How Does Google Analytics 4 Improve Data Privacy? - GDPR Compliance

Integrating GA4 into the privacy framework allows businesses to optimize data privacy strategies, aiding user trust and adherence to privacy regulations.

By: Hareem Sajjad | 9 mins read
Published: Aug 23, 2023 9:21:32 AM | Updated: Apr 19, 2024 12:46:43 AM

Data protection and privacy measures have become a top priority in today's data-driven world and organizational non-compliance with security measures, such as GDPR, can be a recipe for disaster.

Statista found that in 2019, EU companies were more likely to comply with regulations as GDPR did not apply to almost 25% of the companies surveyed in the US. 

However, with the rapid adoption of analytics alongside data protection, it was found that in 2023, 8 out of 10 companies are now GDPR compliant with 27% of companies having spent more than half a million dollars to follow regulations. 

Since compliance with GDPR is on the rise, the question regarding the world’s biggest analytics platform becomes more prominent: How does Google Analytics 4 improve data privacy? Does GA4 use cookie-less tracking?


Get in touch to learn about Analytico’s  Digital Analytics Audit services or GA4 audit services.

What is GDPR?

In 2018, the European Union (EU) established a comprehensive data protection framework called the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Its primary goal is to safeguard individuals' information and personal data within the EU through increased security. 

Under the General Data Protection Regulation there are a set of principles and regulations that organizations must comply with when personal data is gathered, stored, and processed, irrespective of their geographical location.

At its core, GDPR grants individuals a higher level of authority over their personal data. It provides them with the right to access, rectify, and even erase their information from databases. 

This framework imposes an obligation on organizations to obtain explicit consent from users before collecting data and to provide clear and transparent information regarding how that data will be used. 

Moreover, GDPR enforces strict security measures to protect data and makes it necessary for organizations to immediately report any data breaches.

The non-compliance with GDPR results in tough consequences such as weighty fines to highlight the importance of properly understanding the obligatory measures for compliance for businesses, thereby, protecting individual privacy rights and ensuring responsible data handling.

For example,

Ever since the inception of GDPR, EU data protection agencies have claimed more than €358,780,500 in the form of fines and penalties by the end of 2019.

GDPR Background

Safe Harbor Principles 

The Safety Harbor program was introduced in July 2000, to facilitate US businesses to self-certify that they will observe some privacy principles for EU data handling. 

Privacy advocates filed a lawsuit against Facebook Ireland, accusing it of risking their privacy as they transferred data to Facebook Inc. (US) when it was revealed that user data was available for intelligence collection to the US government. 

It argued that the Safe Harbor principles were insufficient for protecting their data.  

On 6th October 2015, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) ruled that Safe Harbor was not providing the required PI protection and abolished it. The decision was called Scrhems I after the activist who filed the complaint. 

Privacy Shield 

The countries with data protection regulations at par with GDPR get an Adequacy Decision from the European Commission for transferring personal information from the EU to such countries.  

After Safe Harbor was abolished, it was replaced by the EU-US Privacy Shield on 2nd Feb 2016 for sharing users’ personal information with the latter as if an equivalent to Adequacy Decision

US companies interested in maintaining Privacy Compliance could opt for Privacy Shield. It involved following their requirements and routine certifications to mimic the GDPR. 

In the aftermath of another lawsuit, Schrems II CJEU on 16th July 2020 that Privacy Shield was invalidated because US surveillance laws took precedence over this agreement, meaning the government could still access PI.

SCC Clauses and BCR Rules

In the absence of any other effective legal framework, US companies relied on Standard Contractual Clauses (SCC) and Binding Corporate Rules (BCR) for legal user data transfer. 

However, their implementation was considered complicated. 

EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework

It replaced the previous privacy agreements on 10th July 2023 and granted the US the Adequacy Decision status. 

It means businesses complying with the EU-US DPF could transfer data from the EU to the US. 

Like its predecessors, it uses self-certifications via the EU-US DPF website.

Businesses interested in offering services in the EU and collecting user data are required to comply with the following rules for compliance. 

  • Purpose Limitation and Choice: Businesses can only collect personal data for specific, stated purposes. For any other use, they must provide the option to decline. 
  • Processing Special Categories of Personal Data: For sensitive data collection, including health conditions, race/ethnicity, or religious belief more stringent standards apply. These include getting opt-in consent forms before data collection or processing. 

Learn about HIPAA-compliant healthcare marketing here. 

  • Data Accuracy, Minimization, and Security: Businesses are bound to keep correct and up-to-date user data and collect only the required data.
  • Transparency: Publish a public notice declaring your participation in  EU-U.S. DPF and details about the data you collect, their purpose, and third parties you share it with, among other things. 
  • Individual Rights: Users have rights over their data, including access to it and requests for deletion. Businesses are required to respond within a reasonable time to address these rights. 
  • Restrictions on Onward Transfers: It restricts businesses from sharing users’ personal data with a third party unless it is for a limited time and purpose and they have a contract ensuring similar privacy protections. 
  • Accountability: Businesses must implement audits, record-keeping practices, and systems to report compliance to the relevant authorities. 

Is Google Analytics 4 GDPR Compliant?

Google Analytics VS.GDPR

Like some other business giants, Google does not sign any agreements or self-certify to ensure compliance with GDPR. 

In January 2022, the Austrian Data Protection Authority (DSB) and the French Data Protection Authority (CNIL) in February 2022 declared that Google Analytics violates GDPR. 

The Schems II ruling of CJEU declared the Privacy Shield invalid, declaring the transfer of personal data of EU citizens to the US non-compliant with GDPR and illegal except with the establishment of safeguards.

Learn about the Impact of Privacy Regulations on Digital Advertising in this blog. 

Why Did Data Transfers Through Google Analytics Violate GDPR?

Data collection and analysis are crucial in the modern business to identify user demographics, interests, and behaviors. 

Digital marketing, product/service refinement, and several other aspects of businesses rely on that. 

Google Analytics was just a data analytics tool helping websites and mobile apps track their performance, understand their behavior, and facilitate digital advertising through audience segmentation and targeting options. 

Given that Google Inc. is based in the US, it is subject to US laws, including surveillance laws. So, its data is available for surveillance and intelligence collection, something that clashes with GDPR. 

Every time a business uses Google Analytics to collect and analyze its user data it is also shared with Google. 

Despite Google implementing SCCs and TOMS, it was receiving users’ personally identifiable information in the US. 

How Does GA4 Resolve GDPR-Related Privacy Issues?

Google Analytics 4 is the latest version of Google Analytics. 

Google made several changes to make it more privacy-friendly to deal with the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework. It still collects personally identifiable information, so GDPR applies. 

So, it offers various privacy features to ensure compliance with GDPR including

  1. IP Anonymization and User Consent
  2. Cross-Domain Tracking and Data Isolation
  3. Event Tracking, User Identification, and Data Minimization
  4. User Deletion, Retention, and Consent Logs
  5. Customizable Cookie Settings and GDPR Compliance
  6. User Rights, Data Requests, and Accountability
  7. Compliance Documentation and Resources

We will discuss these features in more detail in the next section.

Privacy Features of Google Analytics 4

1. IP Anonymization and User Consent

Strengthening User Privacy Through IP Anonymization

IP anonymization is one of Google Analytics 4's most prominent privacy enhancement features. GA4 anonymizes users' IP addresses by default, limiting data collection to the general area rather than specific locations. 

Privacy Features of Google Analytics 4

Since this measure protects user identities and reduces potential privacy risks, therefore, it aligns with GDPR principles and allows businesses to track essential website metrics while respecting user privacy preferences.

User Consent Management With GDPR Compliance

Google Analytics 4 refines user consent management by allowing websites to obtain user consent before collecting data which empowers businesses to meet GDPR requirements while enhancing transparency and choice for users. 

This simplified consent management ensures that data processing only occurs with clear approval by users to ensure data protection regulations are being fulfilled while promoting trust and positive user experiences.

2. Cross-Domain Tracking and Data Isolation

Cross Domain Tracking: Privacy Enhanced Data Connections

Privacy Features of Google Analytics 4 (2)GA4's cross-domain tracking provides a comprehensive view of user interactions across multiple domains while maintaining privacy. This innovative feature enables businesses to gain insights into user behavior without compromising individual user identities.

By implementing this strategy, businesses can enhance marketing campaigns and user experiences while respecting user privacy.

Data Isolation: Safeguarding Privacy Across Domains

Google Analytics 4 segregates collected data from different websites or apps with data isolation to enhance privacy. This segregation ensures that user interactions on one domain remain separate from those on another which prevents unintended data sharing. 

Data isolation supports compliance with data protection regulations and empowers businesses to deliver personalized experiences while upholding user privacy.

3. Event Tracking, User Identification, and Data Minimization

Event Tracking: Personalization with Privacy Considerations

GA4 Privacy Features: Event tracking User Identification and Data MinimizationBusinesses can monitor user interactions to facilitate personalized experiences while considering privacy implications by using GA’s event-tracking capabilities. 

They can better understand user behavior to tailor content and engagement strategies while maintaining user anonymity and data protection simultaneously.

User Identification: Balancing User Recognition and Privacy

GA4 has introduced user identification techniques that strike a balance between recognizing unique users and safeguarding privacy. The use of pseudonymous identifiers allows businesses to analyze user journeys and engagement patterns without revealing personal information. 


Pseudonymous identifiers involve assigning characteristics to make data unidentifiable as a data protection technique by removing their unique attributes.

This approach aligns with privacy regulations while enabling effective marketing and content strategies.

Data Minimization: Balancing Insights and Privacy

Data breaches can be reduced by minimizing data gathered, processed, and stored. Google Analytics 4 prioritizes data minimization by supporting the collection of essential user data only to enhance privacy. 

This data minimization technique aligns with user privacy all while providing valuable insights. It focuses on the complete anonymized data rather than personally identifiable information (PII), reducing breach and unauthorized access risks.

This approach ensures compliance with regulations like GDPR and builds user trust. It empowers users with control over their data and encourages engagement.

Implementing data minimization involves evaluating vital data points for analysis. Organizations can balance insights with strong privacy protection by merging business needs with data minimization principles.

Google Analytics 4's data minimization emphasizes selective data collection, preserving user privacy, and strengthening compliance and trust in user relationships.

4. User Deletion, Retention, and Consent Logs

GDPR Compliance Through User Data Deletion

GA4 Privacy Features;  User Deletion, Retention, and Consent LogsAnother GDPR compliance technique employed by Google Analytics 4 is the process of enabling businesses to delete user data upon request. This feature empowers individuals to exercise their right to ensure that their data is permanently removed from analytics records. 

Data Retention With Privacy-Friendly Data Lifecycles

Businesses can use GA4’s flexible data retention settings to define data retention periods that align with their privacy policies. This will allow organizations to minimize the storage of personally identifiable information and reduce the risk of data breaches.

Consent Logs and Auditing: Transparency and Accountability

GA4 promotes transparency and accountability in data processing with consent logs and auditing through which businesses can maintain comprehensive records of user consent to comply with privacy regulations. 

This feature facilitates internal and external audits, enabling organizations to showcase their commitment to responsible data handling and privacy protection.

5. Customizable Cookie Settings and GDPR Compliance

Privacy Management by Customizing Cookie SettingsGA4 Privacy Compliance: ustomizable Cookie Settings and GDPR Compliance

Businesses can customize cookie settings and users can get granular controls of their privacy preferences through Google Analytics 4. Customizable cookie settings enable a personalized browsing experience while respecting individual preferences for data collection and processing.

This feature allows websites to offer opt-in/opt-out choices for different types of tracking cookies which ensures GDPR compliance and enhances user trust. 

Google Analytics 4 Compliance with GDPR 

GA4 offers businesses tools to navigate the complexities of GDPR compliance, such as consent management and data retention controls allowing organizations to establish a privacy-centric approach to analytics. 

Businesses should align data practices with GDPR principles to build trust with users, avoid potential legal risks, and contribute to a more transparent and privacy-respecting digital ecosystem.

6. User Rights, Data Requests, and Accountability

Providing User Rights Through Data ControlPrivacy Features of Google Analytics 4 (8)

Google Analytics 4 has a user-centric approach that reinforces user rights by giving individuals greater control over their data, such as data access, rectification, and erasure, allowing them to manage their personal information. 

Managing Privacy-Related Queries With Data Requests Handling

Businesses can efficiently handle data subject requests, including inquiries about data processing and rights with GA4. This feature streamlines the process of responding to user queries which allows organizations to provide timely and accurate information. 

Effectively addressing user concerns can help businesses demonstrate commitment to transparency and privacy, thereby building positive user relationships.

Ensuring Privacy Compliance Through Accountability Measures

Accountability measures are another crucial aspect in upholding privacy compliance standards provided by Google Analytics 4. These measures emphasize transparency, responsibility, and documentation in data processing practices. 

Maintaining comprehensive records of data handling activities and consent logs can allow businesses to demonstrate their commitment to privacy regulations like GDPR. 

Accountability measures not only empower users with transparency but also provide businesses with a systematic approach to managing user rights and inquiries

GA4 carries out consistent audits and transparent practices to strengthen user trust, foster a culture of responsible data stewardship, and ensure ongoing alignment with evolving privacy frameworks.

7. Compliance Documentation and Resources

GDPR Compliance Resources

Privacy Features of Google Analytics 4 (9)

There is also an offer in Google Analytics 4 for businesses to access compliance documentation and resources to navigate the intricacies of GDPR. These resources allow organizations to understand how GA4 aligns with privacy regulations and help implement best privacy practices. 

Businesses can use these materials to ensure that their use of GA4 is under legal requirements and industry standards.

Documentation for Accountability

GA4's documentation features support accountability by assisting businesses in maintaining comprehensive records of their data processing activities. These records demonstrate a proactive approach to data protection and serve as evidence of compliance with GDPR. 

This documentation feature enhances transparency and allows organizations to showcase their commitment to responsible data handling and privacy preservation.


This concludes our post on how Google Analytics 4 improves data privacy by following the regulations set by the GDPR.

Google Analytics 4 offers an array of features that collectively enhance data privacy strategies for businesses. By combining IP anonymization, user consent management, and customizable cookie settings, organizations can establish a strong foundation for GDPR compliance. 

GA4's focus on event tracking, user identification, and data minimization also enables businesses to find a balance between personalization and privacy. Moreover, cross-domain tracking and data isolation provide a detailed yet privacy-respecting view of user interactions. 

Meanwhile, user deletion, retention, and consent logs address user rights and accountability. With access to compliance documentation and resources, businesses can confidently navigate GDPR requirements.

Incorporating GA4 into the privacy framework can equip businesses to optimize data privacy strategies, fostering user trust and adherence to privacy regulations. 

Do you like what you read? Learn more about Digital Analytics on our blog here.